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clvi Journal of the Anthropological Society. 

The thanks of the meeting having been given to Mr. Payne, 

Dr. Hunt said that Mr. Payne had spent several years at Natal, 
and was an active member of the Society. He was glad that he had 
presented that skull, as it was the only one of a similar description 
in a London museum. Mr. Payne was actively working for the 
Society, and promised to send them other specimens. 

Mr. Bainbs made some remarks on the Bechuanas, of whom he 
said there were many tribes with different names, but they had a 
general similarity of form. 

The next paper read was, 

On the Natives of Madagascar. By Thomas Wilkinson, Esq., F.A.S.L. 

The natives of Madagascar may be classed into two distinct divisions, 
namely, those who inhabit the coasts, and those who inhabit the 
interior. The former have woolly hair, brown or black skins, strong 
white teeth, and in fact all the characteristics of a superior order of 
Negroes, though, in many, the facial angle is more sharply developed 
than in African races generally. They have a fondness for music and 
gaudy colours, and possess much sensuality, strong imaginations, cre- 
dulity and indolence. They have, within the last few years, been 
conquered by the natives of the interior of the island, called Hovas, 
who, though for a length of time kept back from the sea coasts by the 
belt of Negroes, by which their inland fastnesses were encircled, at 
last, by dint of superior skill and energy, succeeded in overcoming 
their heavy limbed and thick-skulled Negro opponents. These latter 
are variously named according to that portion of the lowlands which 
they inhabit ; thus the natives of the eastern coast, opposite to the 
British colony of Mauritius, are called Betsimasarakas, and were 
formerly independent, occasionally waging war with other independent 
tribes in their vicinity. Now, however, the Hovas, though they may 
use occasionally violent measures towards the conquered ti'ibes, force 
them to keep the peace among themselves. The Hovas inhabit a 
country rocky and broken in the extreme, in the centre of the island, and 
which, on account of its elevation, is, notwithstanding its low latitude 
(about 19° S.) very temperate in climate. These people are generally 
slender, often small, with, in many cases, long, straggling, unsound, 
and ugly teeth, straight coarse hair and light brown skins, with faces 
resembling those of the Chinese or of other Mongolian races. They are 
shrewd, sceptical, good diplomatists (having several times diplomatically 
checkmated the French), good hands at driving a bargain, and oftener 
cheat foreigners than they allow foreigners to cheat them. They show 
much aptitude for learning and imitating foreign manners and cus- 
toms. They partially understand European drill, and have procured 
European fire-arms. Their language, which was formerly only a 
spoken one, has been by English missionaries reduced to a written 
one, and is at this moment read and written by at least one-fourth of 
the male Hova population of Smerins, or Emeryn, as the French call 
it, the name of the native province of the Hovas. They are gradually 
but surely learning the manners and customs of more civilised nations, 
and will, no doubt, eventually attain as high a degree of civilisation 

Wilkinson on the Natives of Madagascar. clvii 

as their Mongolian skulls and brains will admit off. They are very 
jealous of foreigners, to whom they grant certain facilities for commer- 
cial pursuits, and from whom they learn as much as they can, placing 
in them, however, no confidence, and jealously preventing them from 
interfering in political affairs in the island. The grand staple of con- 
sumption for both races is rice. Though the coast tribes have been in 
contact with Europeans for ages they seem not to have much im- 
proved their position, while, on the other hand, the Hovas, who have 
not been long in contact with Europeans, have progressed wonderfully. 
Sometimes intermarriages take place between the races, and, as might 
be expected, the offspring seems to partake in a modified degree of the 
characteristics of both parents. Though the colour of the natives 
varies from a dark black to a light brown, the word " black " or 
" Mozambique " is applied disdainfully only to slaves or very black 
persons, and is considered by the natives as a very great insult. 

The thanks of the meeting were given to the author of the paper. 

The Eev. Dunbar I. Heath said he should be glad to be informed 
what is the most southern point to which the Mongolian race have 
been traced, and the most northern point of the Nigritian race. He 
understood from the paper that the centre of the Island of Mada- 
gascar was inhabited by a Tartar people, but how did the Mongolian 
race get into the interior of Madagascar ? He considered the Mongols 
and the Nigritians the two preponderating races of the earth, and 
that the Semites and the Aryans, who occupy but a comparatively 
small area, were derived from the two greater races. Mr. Heath was 
proceeding to explain his views on that question, when he was re- 
minded by the Chairman that the paper under discussion was only 
on the natives of Madagascar. 

Mr. Ralph Tate considered the Nigritian the younger of the two 
races who inhabited Madagascar. 

Mr. 0. Carter Blake said there was in their museum a crucial 
test of the cranial character of the Hovas. In the alleged distinction 
between the Hovas and the inhabitants of the west coast of Africa, it 
was said that the former had a Malay affinity, and that it had been 
caused either by a Malay immigration or by a geological change which 
had submerged portions of what once formed a large continent. In 
the museum of the Anthropological Society at Paris, there were 
several skulls of Hovas, which had been measured by M. Pruner-Bey, 
and were pronounced to be of a Negroid character. There was the 
skull of one Hova in our museum, and any one who compared it with 
many Negro skulls, would perceive that there was great affinity be- 
tween them. There were, therefore, opposite theories on the subject. 
The skulls of those who inhabited the coast of Madagascar were of the 
Negro type. All evidence showed that the i - ace had the same con- 
formation of skull as the ordinary Negro of the east of Africa, as, for 
example, those of Zanzibar. If they went to the Andaman Islands, 
Ceylon, or the Indian Archipelago, they would find a different cha- 
racter. The Negro of Madagascar was very different from the Malay, 
and still more so from the primitive black population of India. 

elviii Journal of the Anthropological Society. 

Tliei*e was no evidence to bear oiit the opinion that the inhabitants of 
the interior of Madagascar were Mongolian. 

Major Owen said there was no doubt that the language of the 
natives of Madagascar has an affinity to the Malay, and that fact 
would have to be accounted for supposing the people were not of 
Malay origin. 

Professor Maodonald denied that the skull produced from the 
museum was that of a Negro. In the shape of the forehead and in 
general character there was nothing of the Negro skull about it. 
Nor was there much either of the Mongolian character. With respect 
to the extent to which the Malay race may be traced, it was difficult 
to fix any bounds. They were found along all the coasts of Mongolia, 
and in still higher latitudes in America. It was difficult, however, to 
conceive that people so widely separated could belong to the same 
race. The difficulty in such cases consisted in the assumption that 
all the varieties of the human race were created from a single pair. 
That assumption checked all investigations. No one race could live 
in all parts of the earth, and that fact was evidence that they could 
not all have been produced from a single pair. Until they got over 
that prejudice, when they found races of similar habits widely spread 
over the world, they could never understand how they got there. 
They conjured up a ghost to account for it, and retarded their inves- 
tigations by such a fancy. 

Major Owen alluded to an alleged Arabic influence among the 
people on the north of Madagascar, and inquired whether it would be 
corroborated, and whether there was any trace of Arabic blood in the 

Mr. K. R. H. Mackenzie said, that at the Cape a large portion of 
the population, chiefly Malays, employed the Arabic language, and it 
might be possible that the Malays of the Mauritius or of the Cape 
might have communicated with the people of Madagascar and taught 
them Arabic. 

Dr. Hunt thought there were no Negro characters in the skull 
from the interior of Madagascar, and in that respect he agreed with 
Professor Macdonald. But he could not agree with him in his notion, 
that to account for the existence of different races in different parts of 
the world, special creations were required. By such an hypothesis 
he would conjure up many ghosts instead of one. 

Mr. H. Brookes thought they should get rid of the word creation 
in all their researches. In the whole domain of nature there was no 
indication of the creation of man, or of any other animal ; and they 
should not make any progress in their knowledge of man's origin 
until they had discarded the notion of creation, or had found some 
evidence of creation. They should endeavour to trace back races to 
the sources whence they sprang. All that was known on the subject 
hitherto was, that there had been many successive races of mankind 
inhabiting the earth, all of which appear to have sprung from races 
which were inferior, though anterior, to themselves. 

Major Owen observed that in the case of a mixture of black and 
white races, the progeny was, as might be expected, a medium be- 

Presents to the Library. clix 

tween the two. But it had been discussed in the case of a butterfly, 
that there were three separate females to one male, and the eggs 
produced not only a male but a female like herself, and another one 
which was distinct from either. 

Dr. Hunt said there were three other papers on the list for the 
evening which there was not time to read. He then announced the 
titles of the papers for the 16th instant, and the meeting adjourned. 

April 16th, 1867. 
T. Bendyshe, Esq., M.A., V.P.A.S.L, in the Chaik. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

It was announced that the following gentlemen had been elected 

Fellows of the Society :— William Battye, Esq., M.R.C.S., 11, Buckland 

Terrace, Plymouth; C. W. C. M. Medlicott, Esq., M.D., County 

Asylum, Wells ; the Bev. B. J. Magens Mello, St. Thomas's Parsonage, 

Brampton, Chesterfield. 

Local Secretaries. — E. Perceval Wright, M.D., Esq., F.L.S., Seyohelle 

and Comoro Islands; Wm. Battye, Esq., M.B.C.S., Plymouth. 
The following presents were announced : — 

From T. Bbndyshe, Esq., M.A., V.P.A.S.L. — Catalogue of London 
Library, 2 vols. Sir Charles Lyell, Elements of Geology ; Prin- 
ciples of Geology. Gibbon, History of Bome, 12 vols. Ovidii 
opera, by Burmann. Montesquieu, Works. Bollin, Belles Lettrcs. 
Robertson, History of Scotland. A. Pope, Iliad of Homer ; Odys- 
sey of Homer. Ammianus Marcellinus, ed. Wagner. E. Wal- 
ford, History of County Families of the United Kingdom. Anon., 
History of the Sikhs. Findel, History of Freemasonry. H. P. 
Liddon, Some Words for God. J. Sumners, Handbook of the 
Chinese Language. Calderon de la Barca, Life in Mexico. Anon., 
Life of Santa Teresa. Dr. Gumming, Apocalyptic Sketches. J. 
Fergusson, Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. Goldwin Smith, Lec- 
tures on Study of History. S. H. Reynolds, System of Modern 
History. Minucius Felix, Works of. A. P. Stanley, History of 
Jewish Church. Bishop Butler, Whole Works. Rowland Wil- 
liams, Rational Godliness. Baedeker, Schweiz. Levien, Outlines 
of History of Greece ; Outlines of History of Rome. Bacon, Ad- 
vancement of Learning. Meadows, Italian and English Dic- 
tionary. J. Murray, Handbooks to the East, to North Wales, to 
Switzerland, Savoy, and Piedmont, to France, to North Germany, 
and to Soutli Germany. Babelais, Works of, in English. E. 
Zoller, Strauss and Benan. W. Page, Introductory Textbook of 
Physical Geography. L. Agassiz, Method of Study of Natural 
History. E. Waterton, Wanderings in South America. T. 
Wright, Guide to Uriconium. Lucretius, Rerum Naturae, ed. 
Munro. Zimmermann, Solitude. Hurd, Dialogues, Moral and 
Political. R. Damon, Geology of Weymouth and the Isle of 
Portland. Locke on Education, Montaigne, Essays. Bagster,